The Cornish in South Australia
'Wherever in the world there's a hole in the ground at
the bottom of it you'll find a Cornishman searching for metal.' A.K.
Thousands of skilled miners came to SA. They could
sink shafts, handle explosives, operate and build mine machinery, assess
the value of ores and prospect for new deposits. They spoke a Cornish
dialect. Traces of this have survived in Australian colloquialisms
They were interested in music/singing, festivals,
wrestling, and athletics. They ate pasties and saffron buns and
cultivated food crops. They could build their own houses and were
adventurous and could move on if a mine closed down or a richer deposit
Cornish culture and ethnicity
Cornish are a distinct ethnic group in the United Kingdom and are
descendants of the Celts who came across the English Channel about 500
Cornwall is the peninsula on the very western end of England
across the Tamar River. The Cornish kept much of their way of talking
and ways of doing things. The Cornish were great miners, farmers and
They love singing and music, and were religious people.
Cornish people immigrated to Australia when the mines opened up as
economic conditions were difficult in Cornwall. Many came to Kapunda,
Burra, Moonta and Kadina in South Australia.
Because the Cornish
greeted each other as 'cousin' they were called Cousin Jennys and Cousin
Jacks. (Jack and Jenny were the most common names in Cornwall at the
time). They were hard working and adventurous and created a new home
18,000 kms from their own land. Life was hard for Cornish settlers.
Today it is estimated that 20% of people in SA alone have a Cornish
1. Cornwall is
approx the same size as Kangaroo Island
2. There are more people
with a Cornish background living in SA than in Cornwall
3. It is
estimated over 20% of SA have a Cornish heritage
4. Kadina, Wallaroo
& Moonta are called Australia's Little Cornwall
5. Kapunda is
the oldest mining town in Australia and has a statue 7m high of a
Most Cornish people were
Methodists – Wesleyan, Bible Christian or Primitive Methodists. There
are many old churches dotted around our Australian countryside that the
Cornish built. A famous one is the Moonta Mines church which can seat
Kernewek is the revived
language of Cornwall. By the beginning of the 20th century native
speakers of Cornish had died out, but a man called Henry Jenner believed
the Cornish should speak the Cornish language if only for the reason
they were Cornish. He wrote a handbook in 1904 which proved to be the
turning point for the revival of interest in the Cornish language. Now
Kernewek is spoken again in Cornwall and Cornish studies are taught.
Cornish has been accepted as a Celtic language and is now being taught
in schools as Welsh is.
Kernow Bys Vyken! Cornwall forever!
By Tre, Ros, Car, Lan,
Pol and Pen
Ye may know most Cornishmen.
Many names in SA are
Cornish eg Goldsworthy, Hawke, Hancock, Angove, Hayes, Woon, Trevilyan,
Pengelly, Polkinghorn, Hosking, Pascoe.
And many place names are
Cornish in origin eg
Callington, Roseworthy, Rundle Street, Truro,
Launceston, Redruth (in Burra area), St Agnes.
Festivals and holidays
Kernewek Lowender is held in Kadina, Moonta, and Wallaroo every 2 years.
2. St Piran's Day on 5th March. St Piran was one of the many
Celtic saints who came to Cornwall preaching Christianity in the 5th
In Cornwall, besides St Pirans' Day, there are the
1. Last day in April – Trevithick Day is in
memory of Richard Trevithick who invented the steam engine.
May – May Day at Padstow. The Hobby Horse makes a tour of the town to
commemorate arrival of Summer
3. 8th May – Helston's Furry Day.
23rd June – Golowan and Mazey Day in Penzance celebrating St John. Also
5. 27th June - the Cornish rebels of 1497
against the English are remembered.
6. Autumn – Crying of the neck –
an ancient Celtic fertility rite
7. 1st Sat in Sept – the ceremony
of the Bards of the Gorseth Kernow.
8. 23rd Dec – Tom Bawcock's Eve
A white cross on a black
background – commemorates Saint Piran.
The Cornish Coat of Arms
15 gold coins on a shield,
with the motto 'One and All'. It
represents the ransom raised in Cornwall
for the Duke of Cornwall,
captured by the Saracens during the Crusades.
Some famous Cornish-Australians
Kate Cocks – first police woman in the British Empire
Waterhouse – premier in 1861
3. John Verran – led the first Labor
4. Don Dunstan – Premier of SA
5. Albert Hawke – born
in Kapunda, SA, became Premier of WA
6. Bob Hawke – Prime Minister
7. Sir Langdon Bonython – served in the first federal
government; owned 'The Advertiser'.
8. Sir Richard Williams – served
in the Royal Australian Air Force and was called the 'Father of the
9. Henry Hancock – Captain of the Moonta Mine.
Frederick May – engineer, manufacturer and inventor.
Martin – manufacturer and 'the Father of Gawler'.
12. Henry Binney
Hawke – from Kapunda, iron founder, producer of iron lace and machinery.
13. Governor Philip King of NSW was born in Launceston, Cornwall.
The Cornish in earlier
times based their diet on barley flour, the potato and pilchards. Soups
and stews were eaten and also the famous pasty.
Pasties were filled
with different filling according to whose pasty it was – pork, rabbit,
fish, eggs, vegetables and even jam and fruit. The person's initial was
marked on it. The proper pasty was filled with potatoes, turnip and a
little meat and was a meal in itself. Miners' pasties often had apple in
one end for dessert. Miners held the pasty by the crust at the top
since their hands were dirty.